Peru’s Framework Law for Climate Change, enacted in April 2018, incorporates climate risk into all investment projects and makes the country’s climate change commitments legally binding. Water governance is under the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, but administrative authorities manage local water systems. Two major projects are underway that revamp the country’s water management. The 2015-2035 National Water Plan mandates increased mechanized irrigation, home meters and reforestation. A $29 billion plan announced by President Martín Vizcarra in July to upgrade the country’s infrastructure through 2025 also includes its water and sanitation systems.
What Water Resources Look Like
Peru may account for nearly 4% of the world’s total fresh water resources, but the majority of reserves are in the nation’s Amazon region, where less than 5% of Peruvians live. Lima is the world’s second-largest desert city, and nearly 1.5 million Greater Lima residents lack running water, turning to expensive water truck deliveries for access. Contamination from the mining industry threatens waterways around the Mantaro Basin, Lake Titicaca and Lake Junín, among others. In Peru’s arid Ica Valley, a thriving agricultural sector has created a water crisis for locals. Farming conglomerates extract more than 90% of groundwater to produce asparagus and other vegetables, while residents can only access water for a few hours per week.